Posted: 20/11/2010 01:04
And some Shia will even go a step further and claim:
The reality is that Mutah was permissible in the early days of Islam, but was eventually banned categorically by the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم). This is very similar to wine, which was at first permissible in Islam, and it was only later in time that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) forbade it. The prohibitions against wine were expounded slowly over a period of time. In the beginning, drinking wine was permissible and many of the Sahabah did it. Then, the Quran declared that wine was harmful and bad. After some more time, the Quran forbade approaching prayer whilst drunk. After the people had become accustomed to this, it was only then that they were ready so that Allah and His Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) completely forbade wine.
Why did the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) first allow wine and then later forbid it? This was only because Islam was revealed in stages, and the faith was going through a transitional period, with the Shariah being expounded during the life-span of the Prophet. If the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) had not banned wine in stages, and instead had he (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) simply banned wine immediately, it would have been very hard for the early Muslims who were accustomed to wine-drinking, which was a hobby of the pagan Arabs. Many of them were early converts and their faith was weak. They had an addiction to wine, and many of them would become apostates if wine was suddenly banned outright. So, the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) banned wine in gradual stages so that it was easier on the people.
Likewise, Mutah was a hobby of the pagan Arabs. Hence, it was not forbidden in the beginning. This is because Islam was in a transitional stage. The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) initially allowed Mutah on a few occassions because there were many new converts to Islam who had weak faith. They were often in times of war away from their wives, in which their desires got the best of them since they were not accustomed to the chastity of Islam. In order to prevent the apostacy of these new converts over the issue of Mutah, the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) did not forbid Mutah immediately. (And these are the Hadith which the Shia quote to “prove” that Sunnis believe in the permissibility of Mutah.)
Once the Muslims became stronger in faith, the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) categorically banned the practise of Mutah.
The Hadith forbidding Mutah are considered Mutawattir, meaning that they have been transmitted so many times and by so many people that there is no doubt as to their authenticity. We are but a few of the many Hadith in which the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) banned Mutah:
The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) said:
Ali (رضّى الله عنه) said:
Ali (رضّى الله عنه) said to a man who was engaging in Mutah:
A man called Rabee’ Bin Sabra said to Umar bin Abdul Aziz:
According to Abu Huraira:
When Ali (رضّى الله عنه) was given the Caliphate, he thanked Allah Most High and praised Him and said:
Imam Muslim has narrated that according to Mohammad Bin Abdullah Bin Numayr who said:
Narrated Salama bin Al-Akwa:
Narrated Ali (رضّى الله عنه):
Narrated Ali (رضّى الله عنه):
It was narrated from Ali (رضّى الله عنه) that:
It was narrated from al-Rabee’ ibn Sabrah al-Juhanithat his father told him that he was with the Messenger of Allah who said:
Sabrah bin Ma’ bad al-Jihani reported:
The Shorter Encyclopedia of Islam also states that Mutah was a common practice among Arab travelers and goes back to the fourth century:
Caetani also concluded that Mutah in the pagan period was religious prostitution that took place during the occasion of pilgramage.
Thus, Mutah was a loose sexual practice during the pre-Islamic days of ignorance in Arabia. Being an old and established institution, it continued during the early days of Islam. The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) also allowed it temporarily on two other occasions, but only under strict, exceptional conditions during the conquest of Khaybar and during the conquest of Mecca - fearing that those Muslims whose faith was not yet strong might commit adultery during Jihad.
The Shia widely quote Hadith in relation to these events to support their continued belief in Mutah. Sunnis accept these Hadith but add that they happened before all of the revelations of the Quran were revealed and the religion completed. Historians and commentators on the Quran and Hadith agree that Islam eradicated most social evils in a gradual way. It is well known that practices like gambling, drinking, and the eating of pork and blood were common during the early days but were gradually prohibited. Likewise, it seems probable that Mutah was first forbidden to those at Khaybar in the year 7 A.H. and was then completely prohibited to all upon the conquest of Mecca in 8 A.H.
The Shia claim that it was Umar (رضّى الله عنه) who forbade the practice of Mutah and that Mutah was openly practiced during the lifetimes of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) and Abu Bakr (رضّى الله عنه). In fact, Sunnis acknowledge that Umar (رضّى الله عنه) again declared Mutah to be illegal, but they also state that he did not make the ruling from himself. He was merely reiterating the words of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم).
Umar (رضّى الله عنه) was elected Caliph just two and a half years after the Prophet’s death (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم). Present around him were the respected family members and noble companions of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم). Had Umar’s declaration (رضّى الله عنه) been contrary to the Prophet’s practice (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم), a number of these noble people would have objected to it. Yet, nowhere in Islamic history is recorded a single protest against his announcement.
Furthermore, since Umar (رضّى الله عنه) was later succeeded by Uthman (رضّى الله عنه) and then by Ali (رضّى الله عنه), had Umar’s statements (رضّى الله عنه) been contrary to the ruling of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) at least one of them would have reestablished the sanctity of Mutah. Again, there are no records of such abrogation. Oddly enough, the Shia believe that Ali (رضّى الله عنه) left behind a voluminous book, Nahjul Balagha, wherein he presented various aspects of Islam and the Muslim state. However, not a single word in favor of Mutah is mentioned in it. Had Umar (رضّى الله عنه) been wrong in forbidding Mutah, nothing would have prevented Ali (رضّى الله عنه) from condemning it in his writings.
After the Prophet’s death (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم), there were some people who were unaware of the prohibition of Mutah and thus allowed it. Ibn Abbas (رضّى الله عنه) was one such individual, but he later recanted on this position after Ali (رضّى الله عنه) corrected him. The Shia bring up Ibn Abbas (رضّى الله عنه) to somehow prove that Mutah is Halal. How can this lone opinion of one Sahabah go against the sayings of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم)? Ibn Abbas (رضّى الله عنه) made a sincere mistake, and the reliable reports indicate that he corrected his position later on.
The fact is that in the end the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) forbade Mutah. Perhaps some people might not have been aware of its prohibition and subsequently contracted it after the Prophet’s death; however, when Umar (رضّى الله عنه) found out about it, he made another public declaration against it and enforced the ruling as the Caliph and head of the Islamic state. Abu Bakr (رضّى الله عنه) demanded the people to give Zakat when he became Caliph; does any rational mind claim that it was Abu Bakr (رضّى الله عنه) who invented the obligation of Zakat? There were even some Companions who were of the opinion that Abu Bakr (رضّى الله عنه) should be lenient towards those Zakat evaders, and yet Abu Bakr (رضّى الله عنه) rejected these calls for lenience. Likewise, there were some people who were lenient towards Mutah, especially in light of the fact that there were many new converts in a fast-growing empire, but Umar (رضّى الله عنه) rejected these calls for lenience and instead called for the rigid implementation of the Shariah.
The Shia will produce obscure sources to “prove” their claim that it was Umar (رضّى الله عنه) who forbade Mutah, and not the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم). As is typical with the Shia, such obscure sources suddenly become the “authoratative Sunni book”–despite the fact that these are obscure and unreliable sources, and oftentimes these are books written by Shia scholars and have absolutely nothing to do with the Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama’ah.
It is possible that the disagreement surrounding temporary marriage–both back then after the Prophet’s death (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) and now with our debates with the Shia–revolves around people confusing two homonyms in the Arabic language. “Mutah” is used in two ways:
Mutah Al-Nisa translates to “pleasure of the women” and this needs no explanation. As for Mutah Al-Hajj, this refers to the pleasure of this modified form of pilgramage. In Mutah Al-Hajj, the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) allowed relaxation of the Ihram and other duties, thereby making the pilgramage more enjoyable and pleasurable to the believer. It is for this reason that it is referred to as Mutah Al-Hajj.
Many of the Hadith that the Shia bring up that use the word “Mutah” are actually referring to Mutah Al-Hajj, and have nothing to do with Mutah Al-Nisa. Thus, a Sunni follower should not be caught off-guard when the Shia scholars take Hadith out of context, pretending it refers to Mutah Al-Nisa when it really refers to Mutah Al-Hajj. In any case, there are an overwhelming number of Hadith which forbid Mutah Al-Nisa, and the lone opinion of a Sahabah cannot possibly change this opinion. And even this lone opinion stated that Mutah is Makrouh (highly detestable) and only permissible in dire situations of need, unlike the Shia opinion which is that Mutah is Mustahabb (highly recommended) at all times.
We wonder why the Shia even try to justify Mutah by showing that it is even allowed in Sunni Hadith? How does this in any way change the situation? Temporary marriage is immoral.
Furthermore, at most the Shia would be able to say that the Sunni Hadith allows for Mutah only in dire situations of need and that it is Makrouh (highly detestable). (To say even this is a stretch from the truth, since the Ahlus Sunnah forbids Mutah in all circumstances.) On the contrary, the Shia Fiqh encourages Mutah and believes it to be Mutahabb (highly recommended), promising sins to be forgiven to the one who practices it and other such things. Thus, no matter what, the Shia must explain why his Shia Imams would glorify this hideous institution to the point that they claim that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) said:
And there are many more Shia Hadith in this regards. It should be noted that there is a world of difference between accepting Mutah as a dire necessity on the one hand and on the other saying that it is a great deed of piety. At the most the Shia could claim that the Sunnis allow Mutah but consider it Makrouh (highly detestable) whereas the Shia believe it to be Mustahabb (highly recommended). Thereby, proving Mutah from Sunni sources does not absolve the Shia from explaining the moral lapse in the Shia Imams who would declare such an act to be highly recommended.
The fact of the matter is that the Ahlus Sunnah considers Mutah to be Haram (forbidden), and believes this prohibition to be from the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم). It is upto the Shia follower to slander the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) by saying that he would allow such a practise to continue. As for the Shia trying to prove that Mutah is Halal even in Sunni Fiqh, we could just as easily prohibit Mutah in the Shia Fiqh by playing around with their Hadith; if one tries hard enough, it is possible to declare anything Halal or Haram with enough word games and singular Hadith out of context. The bottom line, however, is that the Ahlus Sunnah forbids Mutah and the Shia allow it. Now it is upto the Shia to deal with the reprocussions of this, and so they should not be surprised when we question the moral nature of the institution they believe in.
The position of the Ahlus Sunnah on the illegality of Mutah is very clear and definitive: nonetheless, we will be forced to endure the broken record players that incessantly repeat that the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) encouraged Mutah. No matter how many times the Shia claim this, it simply is not true. The fact of the matter is that this argument by the Shia is simply a smoke-screen to hide their guilt over the abundance of their Imam’s sayings which advocate prostitution.
Article Written By: Ibn al-Hashimi, http://www.ahlelbayt.com/
Posted: 14/02/2011 16:06
May Allah guide us on the right path-Ameen.
It is an eye opener to read so many Sahih Hadiths on forbidding Mutah by Prophet SAWS. Apart from Hadith, we also feel that it is immoral to have such ties for the sake of pleasure when Allah has permitted up to 4 wives in case we can treat them equally.
I feel that all must circluate and give their openions.
Posted: 20/11/2011 10:54
I wish to
Firstly, I wish to draw the attention of the reader to the fact that the recordings of Ahaadith took place in the second century Hijrah in an organised way. The kind of hard work and time taken for
Second point that I wish to make is to invite well meaning Momins and Muslims to strive hard to set an example in day to day life that should inspire admiration from all righting thinking people regardless of their faith. This is a big challenge and only a Jihad-e Akbar can achieve it. The first and unavoidable step in any work in the field of improving the prevail atmosphere of competitive preaching marked by one-up-manship is to distance from the field and set upon self-imposed task of improving personal image in day to day life by practice and not by word. Had our beloved Prophet (SAWS) simply conveyed the text as communicated to him by Allah (SWT) the world would not even have heard of Islam. Remember what he did in his 13 years ordeal in beloved home town of Makkah and another 10 yeas in exile in Madina that he adopted as his second home under divine guidance. Given a free choice he would have not returned to Madina after the surrender of Makkans - perhaps.
The third and last point is regarding this fruitless debate on Muta'. Remember, it is well accepted norm to go back to Holy Qur'an when faced with conflicting and contradicting authorities by reival groups. Qur’an is un-ambiguous about the institution of marriage. Allah (SWT) permitted more than one wife ONLY for providing protection to orphan girls who has lost parents in battles or otherwise with no one to care for them - a situation that prevails in all tribal societies even now. Additional condition, subject to affordablity, was the capacity of being impartial at least externally. Now where is the question of Muta' or contract marriage for a set term. Read and re-read the relevant Ayaats, think and analyse yourself and you will get the right answer.
My dear brothers and sisters, after the onset of monarchy rule in Islam, the selfish and self-preserving rulers used religion and pliable religious scholars to strengthen their own rule and perpetuate it in the family. And it lasted for a very long time. The true spirit of Islam that was deserted with the cold blooded and pre-medidated assassination of the third Khalifah of Islam was lost totally by the time a Mongol vagabond raided Abbasi Empire, unparalleled and unchallenged
My dear brothers and sisters apply your mind for whatever it is worthy of (as it is gift of Allah who will test accordingly) instead of blindly following this or that cult. Taqleed ends the day you become a wise adult. Now on it is you, your faith, your deeds (with intentions included), your life, your death and ultimately the promised Day of Reckoning. None will rescue the other, none will intercede - "Laha ma kasabath wo 'alaiha maktasabat" or "Lakum 'amalakum, Lahum 'amalahum." Allah (SWT) will not bother you with what others did not even the scholars of various groupings.. He will neither let you go for you did without accounting for it. So what are we talking about.
Think, think and think again. Is it worthwhile to waste time on such debates? Matter is too serious to be left to the fertile imagination and barren debate of the so-called-scholars.
May Allah (SWT) pardon us for our sins of omission and commission and bless us all with wisdom
Posted: 14/10/2014 06:16
The Mut’ah marriage is that a man marries a woman – either She is Muslim or from the people of the Book – and specifies how long the marriage will last, for example ten days, or three months, or half a year, or many years.
This kind of marriage was permitted during the year of the Conquest of Makkah for three days, then it was disallowed and prohibited until the Day of Resurrection. This was reported by Muslim (1406).
“… and live with them honourably …” [al-Nisaa’ 4:19], but in the case of mut’ah a man does not live with the woman for long.
The wife is the one who is called a wife in sharee’ah, with whom the relationship is long-lasting. She is mentioned in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):
Mut’ah marriage is considered to be zinaa (adultery or fornication), even if both parties consent to it, and even if it lasts for a long time, and even if the man pays the woman a mahr.